The continued reliance on chemical soil fumigants such as Metham Sodium (MS) can largely be attributed to consumer demand for low cost, good quality, nice-looking vegetables. This drives the need for intensification and specialisation in the vegetable industry to maintain economical viability. Ironically, consumer expectations and market requirements may also affect the continued acceptability of using ‘old style’ broad-spectrum fumigants even if the products are not deregistered. A review or deregistration of MS is not planned at the time of writing this report. Unfortunately, intensification has, in many cases, changed soil conditions and reduced inherent disease suppressive soil properties, thus reinforcing a reliance on fumigation to deal with soilborne diseases, pests and weeds. Much stated drivers for continued MS use, besides the need for ‘attractive’, inexpensive vegetables, are its apparent broad-spectrum efficacy and low cost. Several growers are concerned about health affects of MS, having had ‘a whiff of it’, especially since one of the main reasons for strict regulation or discontinuation of MS elsewhere is its toxicity to humans. Producers also mention potential environmental effects as an issue but they usually have not experienced or investigated them. In addition, MS can be subject to enhanced biodegradation with specialist microbes able to inactivate it quickly. Many growers are aware of this risk but do not know whether they are affected. Replacing a broad-spectrum fumigant with integrated methods requires growers and their advisers to understand the complexity and risk profiles of all pests and diseases that may affect their crops. Integrated solutions are not simple drop-in’ replacements. These need to be site-specific and adjusted to individual farm circumstances and growers’ personal preferences. This often takes time. The economics of most MS alternatives require looking at cost / benefits over longer timeframes and use of more complex calcu